Treated effluent and/or stormwater can be directly discharged into receiving water bodies (such as rivers, lakes, etc.) or into the ground to recharge aquifers, depending on their quality.General term for a liquid that leaves a technology, typically after blackwater or sludge has undergone solids separation or some other type of treatment. Effluent originates at either a collection and storage or a (semi-) centralised treatment technology. Depending on the type of treatment, the effluent may be completely sanitised or may require further treatment before it can be used or disposed of.Mixture of solids and liquids, containing mostly excreta and water, in combination with sand, grit, metals, trash and/or various chemical compounds. A distinction can be made between faecal sludge and wastewater sludge. Faecal sludge comes from on-site sanitation technologies, i.e. it has not been transported through a sewer. It can be raw or partially digested, a slurry or semisolid, and results from the collection and storage/treatment of excreta or blackwater, with or without greywater. Wastewater sludge (also referred to as sewage sludge) originates from sewer-based wastewater collection and (semi-)centralised treatment processes. The sludge composition will determine the type of treatment that is required and the end-use possibilities.General term for rainfall runoff collected from roofs, roads and other surfaces. Very often the term is used to refer to rainwater that enters a sewerage system. It is the portion of rainfall that does not infiltrate into the soil.Describes technologies for on-site collection, storage, and sometimes (pre-) treatment of the products generated at the user interface. The treatment provided by these technologies is often a function of storage and is usually passive (i.e. requires no energy input), except a few emerging technologies where additives are needed. Thus, products that are ‘treated’ by these technologies often require subsequent treatment before use and/or disposal. In the technology overview graphic, this functional group is subdivided into the two subgroups: “Collection/Storage” and “(Pre-)Treatment”. This allows a further classification for each of the listed technologies with regard to their function: collection and storage, (pre-) treatment only or both.Refers to the methods through which products are returned to the environment, either as useful resources or reduced-risk materials. Some products can also be cycled back into a system (e.g. by using treated greywater for flushing).A functional group is a grouping of technologies that have similar functions. The compendium proposes five different functional groups from which technologies can be chosen to build a sanitation system:
User interface (U), Collection and Storage/Treatment (S), Conveyance (C), (Semi-) Centralised Treatment (T), Use and/or Disposal (U).
A sanitation system is a multi-step process in which sanitation products such as human excreta and wastewater are managed from the point of generation to the point of use or ultimate disposal. It is a context-specific series of technologies and services for the management of these sanitation products, i.e. for their collection, containment, transport, treatment, transformation, use or disposal. A sanitation system comprises functional groups of technologies that can be selected according to context. By selecting technologies from each applicable functional group, considering the incoming and outgoing products, and the suitability of the technologies in a particular context, a logical, modular sanitation system can be designed. A sanitation system also includes the management and operation and maintenance (O & M) required to ensure that the system functions safely and sustainably. An underground layer of permeable rock or sediment (usually gravel or sand) that holds or transmits groundwater.
The utilisation of products derived from a sanitation system.
The liquid that has passed through a filter.
Water that is located beneath the earth’s surface.
A sanitation system in which excreta and wastewater are collected and stored or treated on the plot where they are generated.
The means of safely collecting and hygienically disposing of excreta and liquid
wastes for the protection of public health and the preservation of the quality of public water bodies and, more generally, of the environment.
Waste matter that is transported through the sewer.
An open channel or closed pipe used to convey sewage. See C.3 and C.4
The physical sewer infrastructure (sometimes used interchangeably with sewage).
Used water from any combination of domestic, industrial, commercial or agricultural activities, surface runoff/stormwater, and any sewer inflow/infiltration.
The uses of the surface water body, whether for industry, recreation, spawning habitat, etc., and its size determine the quality and quantity of treated wastewater that can be introduced without deleterious effects. Alternatively, water can be discharged into aquifers. Groundwater Recharge is increasing in popularity as groundwater resources deplete and as saltwater intrusion becomes a greater threat to coastal communities. Although the soil is known to act as a filter for a variety of contaminants, Groundwater Recharge should not be viewed as a treatment method.An underground layer of permeable rock or sediment (usually gravel or sand) that holds or transmits groundwater.
It is necessary to ensure that the assimilation capacity of the receiving water body is not exceeded, i.e. that the receiving body can accept the quantity of nutrients without being overloaded. Parameters such as turbidity, temperature, suspended solids, biochemical oxygen demand, nitrogen and phosphorus content (among others) should be carefully controlled and monitored before releasing any water into a natural water body. Local authorities should be consulted to determine the discharge limits for the relevant parameters as they can widely vary. For especially sensitive areas, a post-treatment technology (e.g. chlorination POST ) may be required to meet microbiological limits. The quality of water extracted from a recharged aquifer is a function of the quality of the wastewater introduced, the method of recharge, the characteristics of the aquifer, the residence time, the amount of blending with other waters, the direction of groundwater flow and the history of the system. Careful analysis of these factors should precede any recharge project.An underground layer of permeable rock or sediment (usually gravel or sand) that holds or transmits groundwater.
Groundwater Recharge does not require materials. Preceding technologies to add the water to the receiving water body, like Leach Fields D.9 or Soak Pits D.10 , require materials. Equipment for regular monitoring and evaluation of the groundwater quality might be needed.Water that is located beneath the earth’s surface.
The adequacy of discharge into a water body or aquifer will depend entirely on the local environmental conditions and legal regulations. Generally, discharge to a water body is only appropriate when there is a safe distance between the discharge point and the next closest point of use. Similarly, Groundwater Recharge is most appropriate for areas that are at risk of saltwater intrusion or aquifers that have a long retention time. Depending on the volume, the point of discharge and/or the quality of the water, a permit may be required. This technology should be implemented downstream of any settlement, as treated wastewater may still contain pathogens.An underground layer of permeable rock or sediment (usually gravel or sand) that holds or transmits groundwater.
Regular monitoring and sampling is important to ensure compliance with regulations and to ensure public health requirements. Depending on the recharge method, some mechanical maintenance may be required.
For Groundwater Recharge, cations (e.g. Mg2+, K+, NH4 +) and organic matter will generally be retained within a solid matrix, while other contaminants (such as nitrates) will remain in the water. There are numerous models for the remediation potential of contaminants and microorganisms, but predicting downstream or extracted water quality for a large suite of parameters is rarely feasible. Therefore, potable and non-potable water sources should be clearly identified, the most important parameters modelled and a risk assessment completed.Any cellular or non-cellular microbiological entity capable of replication or of transferring genetic material (e.g. bacteria, viruses, protozoa, algae or fungi).
There are no direct costs associated with this technology. There can be indirect costs depending on the recharge method, for example, construction of an outlet pipe or construction of a Soak Pit D.10 . Regular monitoring of groundwater requires the installation of monitoring wells.Water that is located beneath the earth’s surface.
The domestic or recreational use of water bodies at the location of recharge should be prohibited, as there are still some health risks particularly if this water is used for consumption. This would require an information campaign at this location, for example using warning signs.
Challenging Ground Conditions
Application Level / Scale
Water-based and Dry Technologies
Tchobanoglous, G., Burton, F. L., Stensel, H.D. (2004): Wastewater Engineering: Treatment and Reuse. Metcalf & Eddy, New York, US
Seiler, K. P., Gat, J. R. (2007): Groundwater Recharge from Run-off, Infiltration and Percolation. Springer, Dordrecht, Netherlands