Planning the rehabilitation and reconstruction of sanitation infrastructure is a task that normally falls under the management of specific government agencies. However, in post disaster/emergency situations, depending on the scale of the resulting damage, aid agencies, civil society and other organisations, private and public, may collaborate with the government to facilitate the rehabilitation and/or (re)construction of the infrastructure, based on damage and needs assessments. Before thinking about new emergency sanitation technology components to be implemented, it is recommended to conduct a proper assessment of what sanitation infrastructure (components) are in place, what might still be functioning and what can be rehabilitated with minimal effort (e.g. after a typhoon all above surface infrastructure may be destroyed or blown away but underground pits and septic tanks may still be in place and operational. With rehabilitation of the superstructure it may be possible to put these into service again).
Rehabilitation can be a complex process that, depending on the size of the systems, can take between a couple of weeks to up to several years. When undertaking rehabilitation programmes, it is important that the different organisations involved coordinate with the government and among themselves, and conform to existing national policies and standards X.4. Linkages to existing long-term governmental programmes should also be examined and developed. Once the acute needs of the affected population have been met, further assessments will indicate key sanitation facilities that require rehabilitation. The basic principle of the rehabilitation of sanitation infrastructure is to prevent the deterioration of existing infrastructure, romote safe sanitation and hygiene practices and prevent sanitation emergencies. Additionally, rehabilitation efforts provide an opportunity to improve the quality of the existing sanitation system, the environment and to build safer more resilient communities. It is therefore important to appropriately incorporate the principals of sustainability from the earliest stages of the rehabilitation effort.
|Considering Sustainability in Sanitation Rehabilitation Programmes:|
In line with the Sphere standards, it is important to agree on the construction standards and guidelines with relevant national and local authorities to ensure that key safety and performance requirements are met. Local or national building codes should be adhered to. In situations where building codes do not exist or have not been enforced, international building codes and/or uniform building codes can be tailored to the local situation. Local culture, climatic conditions, available resources, building and maintenance capacities, accessibility and affordability should all be a part of system design, implementation and operation and maintenance.
The success of a sanitation rehabilitation programme requires well-functioning and sustainable management. To understand the contribution the local market can make to sustainable sanitation, market mapping and analysis can be implemented X.13. Market mapping and analysis can identify strategies, such as cash-based interventions, local procurement and other innovative forms of support to enable sanitation rehabilitation programmes to take advantage of existing market capabilities. Engaging with the existing market can contribute to a more efficient use of humanitarian resources, encourage recovery and reduce dependence on outside assistance. When external actors participate in infrastructure rehabilitation the terms of engagement should be clear, including the duration of project support, transition and exit strategies X.6. The handover of responsibilities to local government, community, service providers or other organisations should include clear instructions and training on infrastructure operation and maintenance.The means of safely collecting and hygienically disposing of excreta and liquid wastes for the protection of public health and the preservation of the quality of public water bodies and, more generally, of the environment.
Brandberg, B. (1997): Latrine Building. A Handbook for Implementation of the Sanplat System. Intermediate Technology Publications, London