U.3 Urinal

A Urinal is used only for collecting urine. Urinals are usually for men, although models for women have also been developed. Some Urinals use water for flushing, but waterless Urinals are also available.The liquid produced by the body to rid itself of nitrogen in the form of urea and other waste products. In this context, the urine product refers to pure urine that is not mixed with faeces or water. Depending on diet, human urine collected from one person during one year (approx. 300 to 550 L) contains 2 to 4 kg of nitrogen. The urine of healthy individuals is sterile when it leaves the body but is often immediately contaminated by coming into contact with faeces.The organic molecule (NH2)2CO that is excreted in urine and that contains the nutrient nitrogen. Over time, urea breaks down into carbon dioxide and ammonium, which is readily used by organisms in soil. It can also be used for on-site faecal sludge treatment. See. S.18

Urinals for men can be either vertical wall-mounted units, or squat slabs over which the user squats. Urinals for women consist of raised foot-steps and a sloped channel or catchment area that conducts the urine to a collection technology. The Urinal can be used with or without water and the plumbing can be developed accordingly. If water is used, it is mainly used for cleaning and limiting odours (with a water-seal). Urinals need to be equipped with a urine storage container or a disposal system such as a Soak Pit D.10 .

The liquid produced by the body to rid itself of nitrogen in the form of urea and other waste products. In this context, the urine product refers to pure urine that is not mixed with faeces or water. Depending on diet, human urine collected from one person during one year (approx. 300 to 550 L) contains 2 to 4 kg of nitrogen. The urine of healthy individuals is sterile when it leaves the body but is often immediately contaminated by coming into contact with faeces.The organic molecule (NH2)2CO that is excreted in urine and that contains the nutrient nitrogen. Over time, urea breaks down into carbon dioxide and ammonium, which is readily used by organisms in soil. It can also be used for on-site faecal sludge treatment. See. S.18

Design Considerations

During an acute emergency, a Urinal can be a simple trench or pit filled with gravel or a piece of rainwater guttering against a vertical plastic sheet discharging into a Soak Pit D.10 . Other options include (recycled) containers or jerrycans with a funnel on top or other locally available Urinal options made out of plastic or ceramic. For water-based Urinals, the water use per flush ranges from less than 1 L in current designs to 5–10 L of flush water in older models. Water-saving or waterless technologies should be favoured. Some Urinals come equipped with an odour seal that may have a mechanical closure, a membrane, or a sealing liquid. For male Urinals, adding a small target near the drain can reduce urine splash. Because the Urinal is exclusively for urine it is important to also provide a regular toilet for faeces. To minimise odours and nitrogen loss in simple waterless Urinal designs, the collection pipe should be submerged in the urine tank to provide a basic liquid seal. For planning, a maximum urinal per user ratio of 1:50 is recommended.

Refers to (semi-solid) excrement that is not mixed with urine or water. Depending on diet, each person produces approximately 50–150 L per year of faecal matter of which about 80 % is water and the remaining solid fraction is mostly composed of organic material. Of the total essential plant nutrients excreted by the human body, faeces contain around 39 % of the phosphorus (P), 26 % of the potassium (K) and 12 % of the nitrogen (N). Faeces also contain the vast majority of the pathogens excreted by the body, as well as energy and carbon rich, fibrous material.Water discharged into the user interface to clean it and transport the contents into the conveying system or to the on-site storage. Freshwater, rainwater, recycled greywater, or any combination of the three can be used as a flushwater source. Many sanitation systems do not require flushwater.Total volume of water generated from washing food, clothes and dishware, as well as from bathing, but not from toilets (see blackwater). It may also contain traces of excreta (e.g. from washing diapers) and, therefore, some pathogens. Greywater accounts for approximately 65 % of the wastewater produced in households with flush toilets.The liquid produced by the body to rid itself of nitrogen in the form of urea and other waste products. In this context, the urine product refers to pure urine that is not mixed with faeces or water. Depending on diet, human urine collected from one person during one year (approx. 300 to 550 L) contains 2 to 4 kg of nitrogen. The urine of healthy individuals is sterile when it leaves the body but is often immediately contaminated by coming into contact with faeces.Describes the type of toilet, pedestal, pan, or urinal that the user comes into contact with; it is the way users access the sanitation system. In many cases, the choice of user interface will depend on the availability of water and user preferences. Additionally, handwashing facilities have been included here with a dedicated technology information sheet as a constant reminder that each sanitation user interface needs to be equipped with handwashing facilities for optimal hygiene outcomes.A sanitation system is a multi-step process in which sanitation products such as human excreta and wastewater are managed from the point of generation to the point of use or ultimate disposal. It is a context-specific series of technologies and services for the management of these sanitation products, i.e. for their collection, containment, transport, treatment, transformation, use or disposal. A sanitation system comprises functional groups of technologies that can be selected according to context. By selecting technologies from each applicable functional group, considering the incoming and outgoing products, and the suitability of the technologies in a particular context, a logical, modular sanitation system can be designed. A sanitation system also includes the management and operation and maintenance (O & M) required to ensure that the system functions safely and sustainably. Any substance that is used for growth. Nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) are the main nutrients contained in agricultural fertilisers. N and P are also primarily responsible for the eutrophication of water bodies.
An organism or other agent that causes disease.The means of safely collecting and hygienically disposing of excreta and liquid
wastes for the protection of public health and the preservation of the quality of public water bodies and, more generally, of the environment.

User interface used for urination and defecation. The organic molecule (NH2)2CO that is excreted in urine and that contains the nutrient nitrogen. Over time, urea breaks down into carbon dioxide and ammonium, which is readily used by organisms in soil. It can also be used for on-site faecal sludge treatment. See. S.18Used water from any combination of domestic, industrial, commercial or agricultural activities, surface runoff/stormwater, and any sewer inflow/infiltration.

Materials

Urinals can be constructed using a wide variety of local materials, ranging from very simple (e.g. plastic funnels connected to a jerrycan), to more elaborate and prefabricated designs. In principle, any sealed material can be made into a Urinal and be connected to a storage container or a soakaway or sewer system.

An open channel or closed pipe used to convey sewage. See C.3 and C.4
Waste matter that is transported through the sewer.

Applicability

Urinals are suitable for shared and public facilities. Particularly in the acute response phase Urinals offer a good possibility to reduce the volume entering pit latrines ( urine can be considered pathogen free and makes up around 90 % of the excreta load). In some cases, the provision of a Urinal is useful to prevent the misuse of dry systems, as no urine enters the system. Urinals are particularly appropriate for communities that already use Urinals. Urinals can boost efficiency of existing toilets, increase use of sanitation facilities, reduce the amount of wastewater generated and remaining toilets can be reduced in number or used more efficiently. Urinals usually smell in warm climates which should be considered when deciding on an appropriate location.

Consists of urine and faeces that are not mixed with any flushwater. Excreta is relatively small in volume, but concentrated in both nutrients and pathogens. Depending on the characteristics of the faeces and the urine content, it can have a soft or runny consistency.Refers to (semi-solid) excrement that is not mixed with urine or water. Depending on diet, each person produces approximately 50–150 L per year of faecal matter of which about 80 % is water and the remaining solid fraction is mostly composed of organic material. Of the total essential plant nutrients excreted by the human body, faeces contain around 39 % of the phosphorus (P), 26 % of the potassium (K) and 12 % of the nitrogen (N). Faeces also contain the vast majority of the pathogens excreted by the body, as well as energy and carbon rich, fibrous material.The liquid produced by the body to rid itself of nitrogen in the form of urea and other waste products. In this context, the urine product refers to pure urine that is not mixed with faeces or water. Depending on diet, human urine collected from one person during one year (approx. 300 to 550 L) contains 2 to 4 kg of nitrogen. The urine of healthy individuals is sterile when it leaves the body but is often immediately contaminated by coming into contact with faeces.Any substance that is used for growth. Nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) are the main nutrients contained in agricultural fertilisers. N and P are also primarily responsible for the eutrophication of water bodies.
An organism or other agent that causes disease.The means of safely collecting and hygienically disposing of excreta and liquid
wastes for the protection of public health and the preservation of the quality of public water bodies and, more generally, of the environment.

User interface used for urination and defecation. The organic molecule (NH2)2CO that is excreted in urine and that contains the nutrient nitrogen. Over time, urea breaks down into carbon dioxide and ammonium, which is readily used by organisms in soil. It can also be used for on-site faecal sludge treatment. See. S.18Used water from any combination of domestic, industrial, commercial or agricultural activities, surface runoff/stormwater, and any sewer inflow/infiltration.
Composés d’urine et de fèces non-mélangées à de l’eau de chasse. Leur volume est peu important, mais ils sont concentrés en nutriments et en agents pathogènes. Selon la qualité des fèces, leur consistance peut être molle ou liquide.

Operation and Maintenance

With Urinals there are often odour issues, especially if the Urinal floor is not sealed. Frequent flushing with water and regular cleaning of the surrounding area (bowl, slab and wall) is necessary. Urinals require maintenance to minimise odour, remove solid waste (e.g. cigarette butts) and to minimise the formation of stains and mineral deposits. Particularly, in waterless Urinals, calcium- and magnesium-based minerals and salts can precipitate and build up in pipes and on surfaces where urine is constantly present. Washing the bowl with a mild acid (e.g. vinegar) and/or hot water can prevent the build-up of mineral deposits and scaling. Stronger acid or a caustic soda solution can be used for removing blockages or manual removal may be required. For waterless Urinals, it is critical to regularly check the functioning of the odour seal. The tank for urine collection needs to be emptied on a regular basis. If a Urinal is used by an average of 50 people per day, each producing around 1 L of urine, a minimum of 350 L of storage is needed if emptied weekly.

The liquid produced by the body to rid itself of nitrogen in the form of urea and other waste products. In this context, the urine product refers to pure urine that is not mixed with faeces or water. Depending on diet, human urine collected from one person during one year (approx. 300 to 550 L) contains 2 to 4 kg of nitrogen. The urine of healthy individuals is sterile when it leaves the body but is often immediately contaminated by coming into contact with faeces.The organic molecule (NH2)2CO that is excreted in urine and that contains the nutrient nitrogen. Over time, urea breaks down into carbon dioxide and ammonium, which is readily used by organisms in soil. It can also be used for on-site faecal sludge treatment. See. S.18

Health and Safety

As there are low or no pathogens associated with the urine the public health risk is relatively low. A Handwashing Facility  U.7 has to be in close proximity.

The liquid produced by the body to rid itself of nitrogen in the form of urea and other waste products. In this context, the urine product refers to pure urine that is not mixed with faeces or water. Depending on diet, human urine collected from one person during one year (approx. 300 to 550 L) contains 2 to 4 kg of nitrogen. The urine of healthy individuals is sterile when it leaves the body but is often immediately contaminated by coming into contact with faeces.An organism or other agent that causes disease.The organic molecule (NH2)2CO that is excreted in urine and that contains the nutrient nitrogen. Over time, urea breaks down into carbon dioxide and ammonium, which is readily used by organisms in soil. It can also be used for on-site faecal sludge treatment. See. S.18

Costs

Urinals can be built economically using local materials. However, any cost consideration needs to reflect the costs related to labour required for the emptying and transportation of the urine collected with daily urine loads of approx. 1–1.5 L per person and day.

The liquid produced by the body to rid itself of nitrogen in the form of urea and other waste products. In this context, the urine product refers to pure urine that is not mixed with faeces or water. Depending on diet, human urine collected from one person during one year (approx. 300 to 550 L) contains 2 to 4 kg of nitrogen. The urine of healthy individuals is sterile when it leaves the body but is often immediately contaminated by coming into contact with faeces.The organic molecule (NH2)2CO that is excreted in urine and that contains the nutrient nitrogen. Over time, urea breaks down into carbon dioxide and ammonium, which is readily used by organisms in soil. It can also be used for on-site faecal sludge treatment. See. S.18

Social Considerations

A Urinal is a comfortable and widely accepted user interface for men. However, in some cultures the use of Urinals may not be appropriate and prior consultation with users is recommended. Urinals for women are less common and users should be consulted if this can be a potential solution. It should be considered placing the Urinals in areas where open urination is an issue in order to maintain a clean and odourless environment. Handwashing stations need to be placed close to Urinals, as hand hygiene after urination is important.

Describes the type of toilet, pedestal, pan, or urinal that the user comes into contact with; it is the way users access the sanitation system. In many cases, the choice of user interface will depend on the availability of water and user preferences. Additionally, handwashing facilities have been included here with a dedicated technology information sheet as a constant reminder that each sanitation user interface needs to be equipped with handwashing facilities for optimal hygiene outcomes.A sanitation system is a multi-step process in which sanitation products such as human excreta and wastewater are managed from the point of generation to the point of use or ultimate disposal. It is a context-specific series of technologies and services for the management of these sanitation products, i.e. for their collection, containment, transport, treatment, transformation, use or disposal. A sanitation system comprises functional groups of technologies that can be selected according to context. By selecting technologies from each applicable functional group, considering the incoming and outgoing products, and the suitability of the technologies in a particular context, a logical, modular sanitation system can be designed. A sanitation system also includes the management and operation and maintenance (O & M) required to ensure that the system functions safely and sustainably. The means of safely collecting and hygienically disposing of excreta and liquid
wastes for the protection of public health and the preservation of the quality of public water bodies and, more generally, of the environment.

User interface used for urination and defecation. Used water from any combination of domestic, industrial, commercial or agricultural activities, surface runoff/stormwater, and any sewer inflow/infiltration.

Fact Sheet Overview

Inputs

Urine

Outputs

Urine

Response Phase

Acute Response + +
Stabilisation + +
Recovery + +

Challenging Ground Conditions

Suitable

Application Level

Household + +

Water-based or Dry Technology

Water-Based & Dry

Management Level

Household + +
Shared +
Public +

Technical Complexity

Low

Functional Group

User Interface

Required Space

Little

Objectives & Key Features

• Separate urine collection
• Take off user pressure from other user interfaces

Strength & Weakness

  • Waterless Urinals do not require a constant source of water
  • Can be built and repaired with locally available materials
  • Low capital and operating costs
  • Problems with odours may occur if not used and maintained correctly
  • Models for women are not widely available and may
  • have acceptance issues
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