S.8 Single Vault UDDT (Urine Diversion Dry Toilet)

The Single Vault UDDT is a Container-Based Toilet (S.10) that operates without water. Urine and faeces are collected separately. Unlike the Double Vault UDDT (S.9) it does not offer the possibility of prolonged storage and treatment and needs an appropriate management system for regular emptying, transport, treatment, reuse and/or safe disposal of collected excreta products.Consists of urine and faeces that are not mixed with any flushwater. Excreta is relatively small in volume, but concentrated in both nutrients and pathogens. Depending on the characteristics of the faeces and the urine content, it can have a soft or runny consistency.Refers to (semi-solid) excrement that is not mixed with urine or water. Depending on diet, each person produces approximately 50–150 L per year of faecal matter of which about 80 % is water and the remaining solid fraction is mostly composed of organic material. Of the total essential plant nutrients excreted by the human body, faeces contain around 39 % of the phosphorus (P), 26 % of the potassium (K) and 12 % of the nitrogen (N). Faeces also contain the vast majority of the pathogens excreted by the body, as well as energy and carbon rich, fibrous material.The liquid produced by the body to rid itself of nitrogen in the form of urea and other waste products. In this context, the urine product refers to pure urine that is not mixed with faeces or water. Depending on diet, human urine collected from one person during one year (approx. 300 to 550 L) contains 2 to 4 kg of nitrogen. The urine of healthy individuals is sterile when it leaves the body but is often immediately contaminated by coming into contact with faeces.Any substance that is used for growth. Nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) are the main nutrients contained in agricultural fertilisers. N and P are also primarily responsible for the eutrophication of water bodies.
An organism or other agent that causes disease.Use of recycled water or other sanitation products.
The means of safely collecting and hygienically disposing of excreta and liquid
wastes for the protection of public health and the preservation of the quality of public water bodies and, more generally, of the environment.

The organic molecule (NH2)2CO that is excreted in urine and that contains the nutrient nitrogen. Over time, urea breaks down into carbon dioxide and ammonium, which is readily used by organisms in soil. It can also be used for on-site faecal sludge treatment. See. S.18

In a Urine Diverting Dry Toilet U.2 , urine does not enter the same container as the faeces and is instead diverted into a separate container. If the urine is not to be reused and if soil conditions allow it can alternatively be directly in filtrated into the soil D.10 as its pathogen load is considered negligible. Infiltrating urine significantly reduces the overall excreta volume (80–90 %) without an increased public health risk. Faeces are collected in a separate collection device and cover materials (e.g. ash, lime or sawdust) are added after each use. The collected urine and faeces must be emptied on a regular basis.

Consists of urine and faeces that are not mixed with any flushwater. Excreta is relatively small in volume, but concentrated in both nutrients and pathogens. Depending on the characteristics of the faeces and the urine content, it can have a soft or runny consistency.Refers to (semi-solid) excrement that is not mixed with urine or water. Depending on diet, each person produces approximately 50–150 L per year of faecal matter of which about 80 % is water and the remaining solid fraction is mostly composed of organic material. Of the total essential plant nutrients excreted by the human body, faeces contain around 39 % of the phosphorus (P), 26 % of the potassium (K) and 12 % of the nitrogen (N). Faeces also contain the vast majority of the pathogens excreted by the body, as well as energy and carbon rich, fibrous material.The liquid produced by the body to rid itself of nitrogen in the form of urea and other waste products. In this context, the urine product refers to pure urine that is not mixed with faeces or water. Depending on diet, human urine collected from one person during one year (approx. 300 to 550 L) contains 2 to 4 kg of nitrogen. The urine of healthy individuals is sterile when it leaves the body but is often immediately contaminated by coming into contact with faeces.The liquid that has passed through a filter.
The common name for calcium oxide (quicklime, CaO) or calcium hydroxide (slaked or hydrated lime, Ca(OH)2). It is a white, caustic and alkaline powder produced by heating limestone. Slaked lime is less caustic than quicklime and is widely used in water/wastewater treatment and construction (for mortars and plasters). It can also be used for on-site treatment of faecal sludge. See S.17Any substance that is used for growth. Nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) are the main nutrients contained in agricultural fertilisers. N and P are also primarily responsible for the eutrophication of water bodies.
An organism or other agent that causes disease.Use of recycled water or other sanitation products.
The means of safely collecting and hygienically disposing of excreta and liquid
wastes for the protection of public health and the preservation of the quality of public water bodies and, more generally, of the environment.

User interface used for urination and defecation. The organic molecule (NH2)2CO that is excreted in urine and that contains the nutrient nitrogen. Over time, urea breaks down into carbon dioxide and ammonium, which is readily used by organisms in soil. It can also be used for on-site faecal sludge treatment. See. S.18Used water from any combination of domestic, industrial, commercial or agricultural activities, surface runoff/stormwater, and any sewer inflow/infiltration.

Design Considerations

The size of the faeces collection container should be chosen according to the expected number of users but should not exceed 50–60 L of volume for easy removal. Containers should be sealable and equipped with handles, allowing easy manipulation, intermediate storage for changes in usage, improved perception and reduced risk in storage and transport. A vent pipe is suggested to remove humidity from the vaults and control flies and odours. Water from the handwashing facility and anal cleansing water (if used) must be drained separately. All connection pipes should be as short as possible with no sharp bends and installed with at least a 1 % slope. An odour seal should be installed at the urine drain.

Water used to cleanse the body after defecating and/or urinating; it is generated by those who use water, rather than dry material, for anal cleansing. The volume of water used per cleaning typically ranges from 0.5–3 litres (but can be more in developed urban areas).Refers to (semi-solid) excrement that is not mixed with urine or water. Depending on diet, each person produces approximately 50–150 L per year of faecal matter of which about 80 % is water and the remaining solid fraction is mostly composed of organic material. Of the total essential plant nutrients excreted by the human body, faeces contain around 39 % of the phosphorus (P), 26 % of the potassium (K) and 12 % of the nitrogen (N). Faeces also contain the vast majority of the pathogens excreted by the body, as well as energy and carbon rich, fibrous material.The liquid produced by the body to rid itself of nitrogen in the form of urea and other waste products. In this context, the urine product refers to pure urine that is not mixed with faeces or water. Depending on diet, human urine collected from one person during one year (approx. 300 to 550 L) contains 2 to 4 kg of nitrogen. The urine of healthy individuals is sterile when it leaves the body but is often immediately contaminated by coming into contact with faeces.Any substance that is used for growth. Nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) are the main nutrients contained in agricultural fertilisers. N and P are also primarily responsible for the eutrophication of water bodies.
An organism or other agent that causes disease.The organic molecule (NH2)2CO that is excreted in urine and that contains the nutrient nitrogen. Over time, urea breaks down into carbon dioxide and ammonium, which is readily used by organisms in soil. It can also be used for on-site faecal sludge treatment. See. S.18

Materials

Single Vault UDDTs can be constructed with local materials, e.g. bamboo, wood, corrugated iron, tarpaulin, plastic buckets and jerricans. Depending on local availability potential cover/drying material that can be used include ash, lime, sawdust, dried soil or dried agricultural waste products. Urine diversion toilet seats or squatting pans can be obtained or produced locally.

The common name for calcium oxide (quicklime, CaO) or calcium hydroxide (slaked or hydrated lime, Ca(OH)2). It is a white, caustic and alkaline powder produced by heating limestone. Slaked lime is less caustic than quicklime and is widely used in water/wastewater treatment and construction (for mortars and plasters). It can also be used for on-site treatment of faecal sludge. See S.17User interface used for urination and defecation. Used water from any combination of domestic, industrial, commercial or agricultural activities, surface runoff/stormwater, and any sewer inflow/infiltration.

Applicability

Single Vault UDDTs are suitable for floodprone, high water table and rocky areas and can be an appropriate solution for the stabilisation and recovery phase provided the technology is acceptable to the users. They should only be implemented if subsequent management can be guaranteed by a local organisation or service provider. They can be replicated quickly given enough space is available. As no water is needed for operation it is a viable solution for water scarce areas. The design can be adjusted to specific user needs and cultural settings (e.g. smaller for children, sitting/squatting). Depending on local acceptability collected products can be used as fertiliser and soil conditioner in agriculture (after treatment). Even without reuse the UDDT offers a safe, hygienic and odour free excreta containment solution. Single Vault UDDTs can be temporary solutions, making them more attractive in situations with landownership issues that do not permit permanent structures. They are adaptable to anticipated disruptions and hazardous events: toilets can be serviced more frequently prior to anticipated events, or additional collection devices can be provided for times when servicing might be difficult.

Consists of urine and faeces that are not mixed with any flushwater. Excreta is relatively small in volume, but concentrated in both nutrients and pathogens. Depending on the characteristics of the faeces and the urine content, it can have a soft or runny consistency.Refers to (semi-solid) excrement that is not mixed with urine or water. Depending on diet, each person produces approximately 50–150 L per year of faecal matter of which about 80 % is water and the remaining solid fraction is mostly composed of organic material. Of the total essential plant nutrients excreted by the human body, faeces contain around 39 % of the phosphorus (P), 26 % of the potassium (K) and 12 % of the nitrogen (N). Faeces also contain the vast majority of the pathogens excreted by the body, as well as energy and carbon rich, fibrous material.The liquid produced by the body to rid itself of nitrogen in the form of urea and other waste products. In this context, the urine product refers to pure urine that is not mixed with faeces or water. Depending on diet, human urine collected from one person during one year (approx. 300 to 550 L) contains 2 to 4 kg of nitrogen. The urine of healthy individuals is sterile when it leaves the body but is often immediately contaminated by coming into contact with faeces.Any substance that is used for growth. Nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) are the main nutrients contained in agricultural fertilisers. N and P are also primarily responsible for the eutrophication of water bodies.
An organism or other agent that causes disease.Use of recycled water or other sanitation products.
The means of safely collecting and hygienically disposing of excreta and liquid
wastes for the protection of public health and the preservation of the quality of public water bodies and, more generally, of the environment.

A product that enhances the water and nutrient retaining properties of soil.
The degradation of organic matter with the goal of reducing readily biodegradable compounds to lessen environmental impacts (e.g., oxygen depletion, nutrient leaching).
User interface used for urination and defecation. The organic molecule (NH2)2CO that is excreted in urine and that contains the nutrient nitrogen. Over time, urea breaks down into carbon dioxide and ammonium, which is readily used by organisms in soil. It can also be used for on-site faecal sludge treatment. See. S.18

Operation and Maintenance

Key operation and maintenance (O & M) tasks include regular emptying and replacing of collection containers, cleaning, checking availability of hygiene items, soap, cover material, dry cleansing materials and water for handwashing and anal cleansing, conducting minor repairs and advising on proper use. Care should be taken to ensure that no water or urine gets into the faeces container. If this happens, extra cover material can be added to help absorb the liquid. Service personnel should wear proper personal protective equipment including a mask, gloves, boots, an apron or protective suit. Division of O & M responsibilities between users and potential service providers need to be clearly defined.

Refers to (semi-solid) excrement that is not mixed with urine or water. Depending on diet, each person produces approximately 50–150 L per year of faecal matter of which about 80 % is water and the remaining solid fraction is mostly composed of organic material. Of the total essential plant nutrients excreted by the human body, faeces contain around 39 % of the phosphorus (P), 26 % of the potassium (K) and 12 % of the nitrogen (N). Faeces also contain the vast majority of the pathogens excreted by the body, as well as energy and carbon rich, fibrous material.The liquid produced by the body to rid itself of nitrogen in the form of urea and other waste products. In this context, the urine product refers to pure urine that is not mixed with faeces or water. Depending on diet, human urine collected from one person during one year (approx. 300 to 550 L) contains 2 to 4 kg of nitrogen. The urine of healthy individuals is sterile when it leaves the body but is often immediately contaminated by coming into contact with faeces.Any substance that is used for growth. Nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) are the main nutrients contained in agricultural fertilisers. N and P are also primarily responsible for the eutrophication of water bodies.
An organism or other agent that causes disease.The organic molecule (NH2)2CO that is excreted in urine and that contains the nutrient nitrogen. Over time, urea breaks down into carbon dioxide and ammonium, which is readily used by organisms in soil. It can also be used for on-site faecal sludge treatment. See. S.18

Health and Safety

If used and managed well, Single Vault UDDTs can be a safe excreta containment technology. They need to be equipped with Handwashing Facilities U.7 and proper handwashing with soap after toilet use needs to be addressed as part of hygiene promotion activities X.12. Pathogen concentration in faeces is high and there is no significant pathogen reduction during the short storage time. Thus, it is critical that the faeces containing vault is handled in such a way that the risk of disease transmission is minimised (i.e. ensure containers are closed and use of personal protective equipment). As faeces are not treated in the vault, there is a need for subsequent treatment. If reuse is not intended the collected faeces can be buried or transported to a final treatment site.

Consists of urine and faeces that are not mixed with any flushwater. Excreta is relatively small in volume, but concentrated in both nutrients and pathogens. Depending on the characteristics of the faeces and the urine content, it can have a soft or runny consistency.Refers to (semi-solid) excrement that is not mixed with urine or water. Depending on diet, each person produces approximately 50–150 L per year of faecal matter of which about 80 % is water and the remaining solid fraction is mostly composed of organic material. Of the total essential plant nutrients excreted by the human body, faeces contain around 39 % of the phosphorus (P), 26 % of the potassium (K) and 12 % of the nitrogen (N). Faeces also contain the vast majority of the pathogens excreted by the body, as well as energy and carbon rich, fibrous material.The liquid produced by the body to rid itself of nitrogen in the form of urea and other waste products. In this context, the urine product refers to pure urine that is not mixed with faeces or water. Depending on diet, human urine collected from one person during one year (approx. 300 to 550 L) contains 2 to 4 kg of nitrogen. The urine of healthy individuals is sterile when it leaves the body but is often immediately contaminated by coming into contact with faeces.Any substance that is used for growth. Nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) are the main nutrients contained in agricultural fertilisers. N and P are also primarily responsible for the eutrophication of water bodies.
An organism or other agent that causes disease.Use of recycled water or other sanitation products.
The means of safely collecting and hygienically disposing of excreta and liquid
wastes for the protection of public health and the preservation of the quality of public water bodies and, more generally, of the environment.

User interface used for urination and defecation. The organic molecule (NH2)2CO that is excreted in urine and that contains the nutrient nitrogen. Over time, urea breaks down into carbon dioxide and ammonium, which is readily used by organisms in soil. It can also be used for on-site faecal sludge treatment. See. S.18

Costs

Investments costs for Single Vault UDDTs are low and they can be built with locally available materials and labour. However, operational costs for regular emptying, transport and further processing of excreta products can be considerable and need to be taken into consideration when calculating longer-term costs.

Consists of urine and faeces that are not mixed with any flushwater. Excreta is relatively small in volume, but concentrated in both nutrients and pathogens. Depending on the characteristics of the faeces and the urine content, it can have a soft or runny consistency.Refers to (semi-solid) excrement that is not mixed with urine or water. Depending on diet, each person produces approximately 50–150 L per year of faecal matter of which about 80 % is water and the remaining solid fraction is mostly composed of organic material. Of the total essential plant nutrients excreted by the human body, faeces contain around 39 % of the phosphorus (P), 26 % of the potassium (K) and 12 % of the nitrogen (N). Faeces also contain the vast majority of the pathogens excreted by the body, as well as energy and carbon rich, fibrous material.The liquid produced by the body to rid itself of nitrogen in the form of urea and other waste products. In this context, the urine product refers to pure urine that is not mixed with faeces or water. Depending on diet, human urine collected from one person during one year (approx. 300 to 550 L) contains 2 to 4 kg of nitrogen. The urine of healthy individuals is sterile when it leaves the body but is often immediately contaminated by coming into contact with faeces.Any substance that is used for growth. Nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) are the main nutrients contained in agricultural fertilisers. N and P are also primarily responsible for the eutrophication of water bodies.
An organism or other agent that causes disease.The organic molecule (NH2)2CO that is excreted in urine and that contains the nutrient nitrogen. Over time, urea breaks down into carbon dioxide and ammonium, which is readily used by organisms in soil. It can also be used for on-site faecal sludge treatment. See. S.18

Social Considerations

The technology should be discussed with the community beforehand as the use of a urine diversion facility may have considerable acceptability and behavior change implications. Training might be needed to support acceptance, ensure proper use and maintenance and to avoid misuse. It should reflect local user preferences ( sitter vs. squatter, anal cleansing practices, direction, positioning etc.) and should account for the accessibility and safety of all users, including men, women, children, elderly and disabled people X.10. If reuse is not intended and soil conditions allow, urine can be in filtrated directly into the ground, avoiding regular urine management and may increase user acceptance.

The liquid produced by the body to rid itself of nitrogen in the form of urea and other waste products. In this context, the urine product refers to pure urine that is not mixed with faeces or water. Depending on diet, human urine collected from one person during one year (approx. 300 to 550 L) contains 2 to 4 kg of nitrogen. The urine of healthy individuals is sterile when it leaves the body but is often immediately contaminated by coming into contact with faeces.The liquid that has passed through a filter.
Use of recycled water or other sanitation products.
The means of safely collecting and hygienically disposing of excreta and liquid
wastes for the protection of public health and the preservation of the quality of public water bodies and, more generally, of the environment.

A person who prefers to sit on the toilet.A person who prefers to squat over the toilet.
User interface used for urination and defecation. The organic molecule (NH2)2CO that is excreted in urine and that contains the nutrient nitrogen. Over time, urea breaks down into carbon dioxide and ammonium, which is readily used by organisms in soil. It can also be used for on-site faecal sludge treatment. See. S.18

Fact Sheet Overview

Input Products

Faeces
Urine

Output Products

Faeces
Stored Urine
Urine

Emergency Phase

Stabilisation + +
Recovery + +

Challenging Ground Conditions

Suitable

Application Level / Scale

Household +
Neighbourhood + +

Water-based and Dry Technologies

Dry

Management Level

Household +
Shared + +
Public + +

Technical Complexity

Space Required

Objectives & Key Features

• Excreta containment
• Alternative for challenging ground conditions
• Nutrient recovery

Strength & Weakness

  • Suitable in areas with challenging ground conditions and that are prone to flooding
  • Waterless operation
  • No flies and odour when correctly used and maintained
  • Adaptability to natural and societally-created disruptions/ events
  • Needs an overall management system (high maintenance)
  • Requires well-trained user and service personnel
  • Requires constant source of cover material
  • Manual removal of faeces (and urine) containers required
arrow_upward